New resources page

I just added a new “Resources” page to my site, where I’ve shared a handful of unique links, including a video catalogue of accents in the Spanish-speaking world, an online collection of short films in Spanish, and a worldwide Spanish slang dictionary.

I have visited many Spanish language resource pages in my time, so rather than repeat the most common links that are often shared in educational contexts, I included a link to the ILR Spanish Roadmap, which pretty much covers all of that familiar territory.

I hope you find the topic of your next tertulia among these links!

Treasures for bebés bilingües

I have a couple of resources to share with other bilingual parents/teachers out there. Several months ago I started to search for books, music, and other media en español that I could use at home to create a bilingual environment for my baby, and I am sharing my favorites here on my blog.

I have nearly exhausted the collection of Spanish and bilingual board books at the local libraries, and in the process I have been able to sift out the good from the mediocre. I highly recommend the books in the English-Spanish Foundations Series by me + mi publishing. They are competently written and edited in both languages (which is very important to me), they cover topics that are helpful for language acquisition, and they are culturally grounded in the United States, rather than Latin America. Click on the image below to head to their website and view their catalogue.


I am very excited about the other treasure that I would like to share. He is a bilingual children’s musician who goes by 123 Andrés. We love his first album, which features original songs in different styles (e.g. bachata, salsa, plena, reggae, even a bolero that is a love song dedicated to animals) and positive messages that address issues relevant to different Latino experiences in the U.S. (e.g. “Mi padre fue un trabajador migrante”). He also has several videos of his songs on YouTube. And his new album comes out this June. We can’t wait!

As always, I have no affiliation with these authors/artists, I just like to spread the word when I find something good!

Voseo Vs. Vosotros

Although I now consider myself a near-native Spanish speaker and I refer to Spanish as my second language, I am definitely a product of the language classroom. I was first introduced to Spanish in the classroom as an elementary schooler, through a video-based (we’re talking VHS video, people) curriculum called “Saludos.”

(Wow, this “vintage” video makes me feel really vieja!!!)

At the same time, this was in South Florida in the early 90s, so for me Spanish was not confined to the classroom nor did I imagine it as a language spoken in a country somewhere far away. I learned how to say vestido in school, but I also learned how to order maduros at the Cuban restaurant near my house. I also learned that my friends who came from Latino families didn’t necessarily learn Spanish at home or even speak it with their parents. Some did, but not all.

Those of us who learn Spanish in school can form a lot of ideas and stereotypes, often without intending to, that can only be modified or corrected by our experience outside the classroom. This is not a criticism, just an honest observation. Obviously it is impossible for an educator to introduce every variation in language and culture that exists in an entire linguistic community.

However, I do feel compelled to present a criticism of one very specific component of the way Spanish is generally taught in the United States. As any one who has taken a Spanish class in school or in college in the US will be able to testify, all verbs are introduced with conjugations for the following persons: yo, tú, él/ella/usted, nosotros, vosotros, ellos/ellas/ustedes. In my experience, I was never tested on the vosotros conjugation of verbs, but it was always there just to make sure we were familiar with it. Every little colored box in every textbook that broke down the conjugation of a verb had it there, between nosotros and ellos/ellas/ustedes. We were taught, correctly, that vosotros was used in Spain, but that ustedes was used in Latin America. Great, thanks for making me aware, got it!

But as soon as I set foot in a bilingual office setting working with colleagues who were born in several different Latin American countries, I learned that there was another widely used second-person pronoun and verb conjugation that no teacher had even introduced to me: vos.

An example of a PSA from Costa Rica employing the voseo.

So, let’s see, there are about 47 million Spanish speakers in Spain, plus some more around the world, who use vosotros. According to Wikipedia, the voseo (use of vos) is used exclusively in place of the tuteo (use of ) in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay, but it is also used in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Chile, and in parts of Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and Belize. Just the populations of Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay alone represent over 56 million Spanish speakers who use vos.

Numerically speaking, shouldn’t we be including vos in the little colored verb conjugation boxes?

Map showing where vos is used, from Wikipedia. See page for author [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (, via Wikimedia Commons.

All I am suggesting is that we at least expose students of Spanish to the voseo, in the same way that we expose them to vosotros. (There’s a whole other level of linguistic variation in how the voseo is used from country to country, which I am not going to get into here and probably is more detail than we need to introduce in the classroom.) Let’s help students become familiar with it, without necessarily testing them on it. As they are more than likely to come into contact with it at some point, we would be doing them a great service. In fact, unless a student is planning to go to Spain, he/she is statistically far more likely to encounter vos than vosotros.

I rest my case.